For years, consumers have been left in the dark about true credit score factors, and how they affect one’s ability to get a loan. Now, with direct access to self-serve websites such as creditexpert.com and equifax.com, consumers are finally empowered to gain greater insight into personal credit; credit score myths, security against identity fraud and theft; and how to correct or improve a score. See below to have credit scores explained further.
What is a Credit Score?
A credit score is the result of a mathematical equation that evaluates many types of information that are on your credit report. Potential lenders will usually review your credit report and credit score, along with other factors, such as your ability and likelihood to repay debt.
Credit scores are often called "FICO scores" because most credit scores are produced from software based on a model developed by Fair Isaac and Company ("FICO"). For more information about FICO scores, go to www.annualcreditreport.com.
What Makes Up a Credit Score?
The FICO score generally ranges from 300 to 850, and a higher
score indicates a lower credit risk. FICO scores are calculated
from many sources information in your credit report, which
is based on the importance of the following five categories
for the general population:
- Payment History 35%
Were Payments Made on Time?
- Amounts Owed on Accounts 30%
Is the balance owed close to the limit?
- Length of Credit History 15%
How long have your accounts been open?
- New Credit 10%
How many new accounts have been opened?
- Types of Credit Used 10%
Mortgage, auto, consumer finance accounts, revolving and installment loans.
What is Not in Your Credit Score?
- Your race, color, national origin, sex, age, marital
- Your salary, occupation, title, employment
information, or residence address
- Any interest rate being charged on your
- Any items such as family/child support,
rental agreements, credit counseling participation
What Can Affect My Score?
Your FICO score is a "snapshot" of your credit
history at a given point in time, and can change based on
the factors that make up your credit score.
- Late Payments - Pay your bills
on time and if you have missed a payment, get current.
- Credit History- When you payoff a debt or collection,
or close an account, the credit reference still remains
on your credit report for a minimum of seven years.
- High Balances - Keep outstanding balances low
on credit cards and other "revolving" accounts
- New Credit - If you have been managing credit
for a short time, don't open
a lot of new accounts.
How To Improve Your Credit Score
Your score can improve by managing your credit responsibly
over time and following some basic tips:
- Make sure the information in your credit report
is correct. You are entitled to one free credit report
annually from the three credit bureaus - Experian,
Transition, and Equifax. Visit www.annualcreditreport.com to obtain your free reports. You may also purchase a copy
of your credit score report through this website.
- Review your credit report for accuracy (date
opened, account balance, account limit, last activity)
and have incorrect or erroneous information updated.
- Pay down high credit card and revolving account
balances, but don't close the account. Don't
apply for credit that you don't need - excessive
credit report "inquiries" can lower your score.
- Avoid moving credit balances from one account
to another just to take advantage of low introductory interest rates. The combination of "inquiries" and "new accounts" can negatively impact your score.
- If possible, avoid "finance company" type
credit accounts, including "90-day" and "12
months same-as-cash" accounts. Mortgage loans, installment
loans and revolving credit card accounts impact your score
more favorably than finance company accounts.